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myCTC.fr  >  Forums  >  Questions / Réponses (FAQ)  >  Cuir  >  How is leather produced?
myCTC.fr  >  Forums  >  Questions / Réponses (FAQ)  >  Cuir  >  How is leather produced?

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AuteurSujet : How is leather produced?
myCTC.fr
Inscrit le : 30/01/2002
Messages : 1967
Localisation : Lyon
Posté le 27/11/2014 à 14:07:24            

How is leather produced?

Leather is produced by transforming animal skin. The younger the animal, the better the
quality of the skin, for it will have been subject to less damage (scratching, parasites, etc.).
Tanners use chemicals and mechanical processes to produce finished leathers with various appearances and properties.

 

CTC

THE STORY OF LEATHER

Leather is produced by transforming animal skin

Leather is mainly obtained from the following animals: cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, reptiles, fishes and birds.

 


The structure of the hide

The structure of the hide

 

 


 The three types of finishing

Aniline finishing








Aniline finishing emphasises the natural appearance of the leather surface by coating it with a transparent product: fine-looking aspectrequires to be properly cared for.

 

Semi-aniline finishing







Semi-aniline finishing covers the leather
surface with layers of slightly opaque pigments which are themselves covered with a transparent film.

 

Pigment coated







Pigment finishing (pigment coat) covers the leather surface with layers of opaque pigments that colour it. High degree of water and stain resistance. Easy-care material.

 

 

 

 


Flaying and preservation 

the hide is separated from the carcass of the animal


At the slaughterhouse, the hide is separated from the carcass of the animal manually or removed mechanically. This operation is critical and requires skilled labour, so as to preserve the hide’s qualities.

 

 

Each hide is classified








Each hide is classified according to its qualities
and defects. At this stage, it is called a "green hide".

 

the hide is salted or dried : raw hide









To ensure its preservation, the hide is salted or dried. At this stage, it is called a "raw hide".

 

 

 

 

 

 


 Beamhouse

 

The soaking


The soaking process consists in rehydrating salted or dried hides and eliminating preserving agents and impurities. The unhairing and liming processes eliminate, chemically, hairs and the epidermis through scudding or rinsing.

 

The fleshing process









The fleshing process mechanically eliminates fat and flesh residues.

 

Deliming












Deliming is the last beamhouse operation: it prepares the skin for tanning by neutralization.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 Tanning

 

The tanning

The tanning operation transforms the hide into leather by treating it with tanning agents (tannins) that make it rot-proof.

 

 

 

Tanning agent







Tanning agent: chrome tanning salts or vegetable tannins provide the leather with specific qualities..

 

 

The leather is sorted








The leather, that has simply been tanned, is sorted according to its qualities and defects. At this stage, it may already be marketed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 Dressing and Finishing

 

The dressing and finishing




The dressing and finishing operations transform tanned leather into finished leather.
Equal thickness is obtained by splitting the leather into two layers: the grain (upper side) and the split (flesh side).

 

 

 

The leather is shaved






The leather is shaved to adjust the thickness of
the grains and splits more accurately.

 

Retannage, dyeing and fat liquoring









Retannage, dyeing and fat liquoring give the leather its colour, feel and softness.

 

the setting-out process








After samming the leather is stretched in the setting-out process.

 

The leather is dried









The leather is dried by circulating hot air in dryers, using paste drying or vacuum drying.

 

The staking process







The staking process is designed to soften the dried leather.

 

Buffing










Buffing is used to obtain different types of leather: nubucksuede, or corrected grain.

 

The leather is finished










The leather is finished in one of two operations, either spraying or padding.

Hot plating






 

 



Hot plating consists in smoothing the surface of leather by subjecting it to high pressure against a heated and polished plate.

 

Embossing






 

Embossing creates a raised design on a leather surface, imitating the skin of certain animals (e.g. reptiles) or the original appearance of the skin.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Download comics
"The story of leather"

 

+ Also find our other Comics :

 

  •                 
    myCTC.fr
    Posté le 27/11/2014 à 14:07:24

    How is leather produced?

    Leather is produced by transforming animal skin. The younger the animal, the better the
    quality of the skin, for it will have been subject to less damage (scratching, parasites, etc.).
    Tanners use chemicals and mechanical processes to produce finished leathers with various appearances and properties.

     

    CTC

    THE STORY OF LEATHER

    Leather is produced by transforming animal skin

    Leather is mainly obtained from the following animals: cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, reptiles, fishes and birds.

     


    The structure of the hide

    The structure of the hide

     

     


     The three types of finishing

    Aniline finishing








    Aniline finishing emphasises the natural appearance of the leather surface by coating it with a transparent product: fine-looking aspectrequires to be properly cared for.

     

    Semi-aniline finishing







    Semi-aniline finishing covers the leather
    surface with layers of slightly opaque pigments which are themselves covered with a transparent film.

     

    Pigment coated







    Pigment finishing (pigment coat) covers the leather surface with layers of opaque pigments that colour it. High degree of water and stain resistance. Easy-care material.

     

     

     

     


    Flaying and preservation 

    the hide is separated from the carcass of the animal


    At the slaughterhouse, the hide is separated from the carcass of the animal manually or removed mechanically. This operation is critical and requires skilled labour, so as to preserve the hide’s qualities.

     

     

    Each hide is classified








    Each hide is classified according to its qualities
    and defects. At this stage, it is called a "green hide".

     

    the hide is salted or dried : raw hide









    To ensure its preservation, the hide is salted or dried. At this stage, it is called a "raw hide".

     

     

     

     

     

     


     Beamhouse

     

    The soaking


    The soaking process consists in rehydrating salted or dried hides and eliminating preserving agents and impurities. The unhairing and liming processes eliminate, chemically, hairs and the epidermis through scudding or rinsing.

     

    The fleshing process









    The fleshing process mechanically eliminates fat and flesh residues.

     

    Deliming












    Deliming is the last beamhouse operation: it prepares the skin for tanning by neutralization.

     

     

     

     

     

     


     Tanning

     

    The tanning

    The tanning operation transforms the hide into leather by treating it with tanning agents (tannins) that make it rot-proof.

     

     

     

    Tanning agent







    Tanning agent: chrome tanning salts or vegetable tannins provide the leather with specific qualities..

     

     

    The leather is sorted








    The leather, that has simply been tanned, is sorted according to its qualities and defects. At this stage, it may already be marketed.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     


     Dressing and Finishing

     

    The dressing and finishing




    The dressing and finishing operations transform tanned leather into finished leather.
    Equal thickness is obtained by splitting the leather into two layers: the grain (upper side) and the split (flesh side).

     

     

     

    The leather is shaved






    The leather is shaved to adjust the thickness of
    the grains and splits more accurately.

     

    Retannage, dyeing and fat liquoring









    Retannage, dyeing and fat liquoring give the leather its colour, feel and softness.

     

    the setting-out process








    After samming the leather is stretched in the setting-out process.

     

    The leather is dried









    The leather is dried by circulating hot air in dryers, using paste drying or vacuum drying.

     

    The staking process







    The staking process is designed to soften the dried leather.

     

    Buffing










    Buffing is used to obtain different types of leather: nubucksuede, or corrected grain.

     

    The leather is finished










    The leather is finished in one of two operations, either spraying or padding.

    Hot plating






     

     



    Hot plating consists in smoothing the surface of leather by subjecting it to high pressure against a heated and polished plate.

     

    Embossing






     

    Embossing creates a raised design on a leather surface, imitating the skin of certain animals (e.g. reptiles) or the original appearance of the skin.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Download comics
    "The story of leather"

     

    + Also find our other Comics :

     

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